Multilateralism Diplomacy For Peace in the World

By Niru Maya Tamng

The process of bringing together more than two nations or parties in obtaining diplomatic solutions to transnational problems is known as multilateral diplomacy. Following the destruction of World War II, the United Nations (UN) was founded in 1945 with a single mission: to maintain worldwide peace and security. However, conflict prevention remains a little-known part of the UN’s mission. Meanwhile, the most efficient and desirable use of diplomacy is to reduce tensions before they become a source of conflict, or, if conflict does occur, to move quickly to limit it and resolve its root causes. By resolving United Nations resolution A/RES/73/127 on December 12, 2018, the International Day of Multilateralism and Diplomacy for Peace was established and marked on April 24, 2019, as “a means to promote the values of the United Nations and to reaffirm the faith of our peoples in the purposes and principles enshrined in its Charter, to reaffirm the importance and relevance of multilateralism and international law and to advance the common goal of lasting and sustained peace through diplomacy” (United Nation, 2022).

The UN set aside the day to underscore the importance of the UN Charter in resolving conflicts peacefully. On this day, the United Nations reaffirmed its Charter and ideals by revising the norms and practices that nations adopt to address the ever-increasing issues of isolation and safety (Hadjikoumis, 2021). On an international day like this, the most important message is that we must honor our commitments. But in the past few months, we have witnessed how humanity is vanishing due to the war and conflict between various nations such as the Taliban’s invasion of Afghanistan and Russia over Ukraine. This current geopolitical crisis comes on top of other major global crises like climate change and the ongoing COVID pandemic, as well as a slew of other threats such as biodiversity loss, financial instability, water, energy, and food insecurity, digital disruption and manipulation, and much more. In such situations, the UN has not supported the victim parties with military aid but instead helped the effect civilians and refugees to evacuate and place them in different developed counties by providing aid and benefits to them. However, though the UN may provide them with a safe and comfy place to stay, the civilians have lost their home country forever, which is more miserable.

Multilateralism DiplomacyIn conclusion, we may have seen the UN is silent in case of war between different nations but in reality, it does not want to make more losses by involving in the dispute between two nations with military force instead it has tried to prevent it in many ways. If the war occurs, then it has helped the refugees and civilians to have a better and safe place to live. Therefore this day “International day of multilateralism democracy for Peace” has many scopes and plays an important role in making the world a place with less dispute and conflicts.

Vatican II View of Culture and Its Implications for Peace

By Felix Wilfred

One way for theology to contribute to peace is to take further the important teaching of Vatican II on culture and draw out its implications for the promotion of peace. The colonial period was characterized by an evolutionary and hierarchical understanding of culture. Accordingly, some cultures were viewed as superior and developed, whereas others — those of the colonized peoples — were looked down as inferior and needing development. Thanks to the contribution of anthropological studies, Vatican II refused to entertain any such evolutionary and hierarchical understanding of culture. Rather, it saw cultures as a deeply human reality, each one with its own unique characteristics.

What we have, then, are a plurality of cultures, every one of them different, but none of them superior or inferior to others. I think the plurality of cultures so clearly acknowledged and affirmed by the Council cannot be deployed only to contexualize Christianity. Vatican II, after having presented a larger and humanistic view of culture, turned it to the advantage of the Church for its programme of inculturation. But the point is culture has a larger role to play in humanizing the world and society and in fostering mutual understanding. It offers among other things ways and means to resolve differences in human and societal relationships. Promotion of peace at the local level needs to be nourished by these sources and latch on to the concrete strategies each culture has devised and transmitted from generation to generation. The local culture may have also important lessons for the construction of peace in other societies and at the global level.

Culture and Theology of Creation

A theology from above would view culture in relation to economy of salvation. Culture needs to conform to God’s Word, instead of God’ Word coming in encounter with culture, some would argue. On the other hand, a theology of creation would view culture as a reality of human collective life and having value in itself: If God acts through human agency and medium in different areas of life, this applies as well to the case of peace. The evil of violence is caused by human beings, and God brings about peace through the same human beings by letting them use positive means and ways at their disposal. If violence and conflicts have existed from the beginning of humanity, the same humanity has also found the means to resolve conflicts and bring to an end hatred and violence.

Human interrelationships and encounters are shaped by culture, and the ways in which people relate are culturally embedded. It is easy then to understand why when ruptures take place in these relationships and manifests themselves in conflicts and violence, the same culture is crucial in bringing about healing touch, reconciliation and peace. Thus it makes sense to investigate the cultural potential among every people for cessation of hostilities and entry into a process of peace and reconciliation.

Mystical Approach to Culture – Way to Peace

I already referred to Nicholas of Cusa. In his work “Peace of Faith”, he sees harmony of religions resulting from a vision. It is remarkable that at a time of great religious conflicts, he was able to relate the warring religions from a mystical perspective and see their ultimate unity.

It happened that after several days – perhaps because of long continued meditation—a vision was revealed to this zealous man. From it he concluded that of a few wise men familiar from their own experience with all such differences which are observed in religions throughout the world, a single easy harmony could be found and through it a lasting peace established by appropriate and true means.1)

Today, even as we try to deepen the mystical dimension called for in inter-religious understanding, we need to also see the mystical dimension in the plurality of cultures, and in the harmony of cultures. Mysticism breaks the barriers, borders and leads us to see greater unity, and it has the power to make us see things in a different light.

That applies to different cultures. They do not become rivals, but are _ bonded together as manifold expressions of a single humanity united with the divine mystery. The sense of unity and harmony helps us also discover in each culture, though circumscribed by particularities of geography and history, something that surpasses these, something “that relates it at a different plane with other cultures. It helps us learn how each culture promotes and sustains peace, and the resources it . possesses for this goal. This mystical vision of cultures could be assisted by such concrete practices as inter-cultural communication.

Ref:

1) Nicholas of Cusa, De Pace Fidei (1453) chapter I.